RS-422/RS-485 Interface ICs are integrated circuits (ICs) that provide a physical interface between one or more RS-422/RS-485 serial lines and a microcontroller or microprocessor. They are designed to ensure compatibility between different digital and/or analog devices with differing communication protocols, formats, and speeds. RS-422/RS-485 ICs may be found in both single- and multi-chip packages, and may feature modem control and voltage protection features. RS-422 ICs are most commonly used for robust, medium-range (e.g., 10 meters) digital signaling over distances of up to 4000 meters, and can support up to 10 receive and 10 transmit lines. RS-485 ICs are most commonly used in industrial control applications, such as motor control systems. They enable transmission over long distances (up to 4000 meters), support multiple nodes on a single line, and support higher data rates of up to 10 Mbps.