A Thermoelectric Peltier Module is a type of solid-state heat pump consisting of one or more thermoelectric (TE) elements, typically connected in a series-parallel pattern of elements and arranged between two ceramic plates. This type of module is capable of transferring heat from one side of the module, the cold junction, to the other side, the hot junction, by the process of thermoelectric cooling (TEC). The performance of the module is often increased by the use of a thermally conductive material, such as copper, between the ceramic plates and the junction elements. The TEC module has a variety of uses, including cooling electronics, thermoelectric generation, cryogenic cooling and air conditioning. They are also used for passive cooling in refrigeration systems and in the HVAC industry.